Many modern trucksare powered bydiesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gas engines exist in the United States.The European Union rules that vehicles with a gross combination of mass up to 3,500 kg (7,716 lb) are also known as light commercial vehicles. Any vehicles exceeding that weightare knownas large goods vehicles.
Medium trucks are larger than light but smaller than heavy trucks. In the US, theyare definedas weighing between 13,000 and 33,000 pounds (6,000 and 15,000 kg). For the UK and the EU, the weight is between 3.5 and 7.5 tons (3.9 and 8.3 tons).Local delivery and public service (dump trucks, garbage trucks, and fire-fighting trucks) are around this size.
A business route (occasionally city route) in the United States and Canada is a short special route connected to a parent numbered highway at its beginning, then routed through the central business district of a nearby city or town, and finally reconnecting with the same parent numbered highway again at its end.
A circumferential route refers to a public transportation system that follows the route in the shape of a circle.Over time a nickname developed in the European Union, calling transportation networks such as these a "ring road".This is no surprise as Europe has several famous "ring roads" such as the Berliner Ring, the Brussels Ring, the Amsterdam Ring, the Boulevard Périphérique around Paris and the Leeds Inner and Outer ring roads. Other countries adopted the term as well which in turn made the name go international.Australia's Melbourne's Western Ring Road and India's Hyderabad's Outer Ring Road both adopted the name.Howeverin Canada, the term is mostcommonlyused, with "orbital" used to a much lesser extent.
On the contrary, the United States calls many "ring roads" as belt-lines, beltways, or loops instead.For example, the Capital Beltway around Washington, D.C. Some ring roads use terminology such as "Inner Loop" and "Outer Loop".This is, of course, for the sake of directional sense, since compass directions cannotbe determinedaround the entire loop.
The rise of technological development gave rise to the modern trucking industry.There a few factors supporting this spike in the industry such as the advent of the gas-powered internal combustion engine.Improvement in transmissions is yet another source,justlike the move away from chain drives to gear drives. And of course the development of the tractor/semi-trailer combination.
The first state weight limits for truckswere determinedand put in place in 1913.Only four states limited truck weights, from a low of 18,000 pounds (8,200 kg) in Maine to a high of 28,000 pounds (13,000 kg) in Massachusetts. The intention of these laws was to protect the earth and gravel-surfaced roads. In this case, particular damages due to the iron and solid rubber wheels of early trucks. By 1914 there were almost 100,000 trucks on America's roads.As a result of solid tires, poor rural roads, and amaximumspeed of 15 miles per hour (24km/h) continued to limit the use of these trucks tomostlyurban areas.