Beginning the the early 20th century, the 1920's saw several major advancements. There was improvement in rural roads which was significant for the time.The diesel engine, which are 25-40% more efficient than gas engines were also a major breakthrough.We also saw the standardization of truck and trailer sizes along with fifth wheel coupling systems. Additionally power assisted brakes and steering developed. By 1933, all states had some form of varying truck weight regulation.
In the 20th century, the 1940 film "They Drive by Night" co-starred Humphrey Bogart. He plays an independent driver struggling to becomefinanciallystable andeconomicallyindependent. This is all set during the times of the Great Depression. Yet another film was released in 1941, called "The Gang's All Here". It is a story of a trucking company that'sbeen targeted bysaboteurs.
Trucks of the era mostly used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 1,500 to 2,000 kilograms (3,300 to 4,400 lb). In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, and 25000 in 1914. A Benz truck modified by Netphener company (1895)
During the latter part of the 20th century, we saw a decline of the trucking culture.Coinciding with this decline was a decline of the image of truck drivers, as they becamenegativelystigmatized.As a result of such negativity, it makes sense that truck drivers werefrequentlyportrayed as the "bad guy(s)" in movies.
Full truckload carriersnormallydeliver a semi-trailer to a shipper who will fill the trailer with freight for one destination.Once the traileris filled, the driver returns to the shipper to collect the required paperwork.Upon receiving the paperwork the driver will then leave with the trailer containing freight. Next, the driver will proceed to the consignee and deliver the freight him or herself. At times, a driver will transfer the trailer to another driver who will drive the freight the rest of the way.Full Truckload service (FTL) transit times are generally restricted by the driver's availability. This is according to Hours of Service regulations and distance.It istypicallyaccepted that Full Truckload carriers will transport freight at an average rate of 47 miles per hour. This includes traffic jams, queues at intersections, other factors that influence transit time.
The main purpose of the HOS regulation is to prevent accidents due to driver fatigue. To do this, the number of driving hours per day, as well as the number of driving hours per week, havebeen limited.Another measure to prevent fatigue is to keep drivers on a 21 to 24-hour schedulein order tomaintain a natural sleep/wake cycle. Drivers must take a dailyminimumperiod of rest andare allowedlonger "weekend" rest periods. This is in hopes to combat cumulative fatigue effects thataccrueon a weekly basis.